Negative Afterimage
and Other Visual Experiments

Positive and Negative Afterimages
Instructions, Experiments and Process

Sit down before a fact, as a little child,
be prepared to give up every preconceived notion,
follow humbly wherever and to whatever abyss nature leads,
or you shall learn nothing.
--T. H. Huxley


  • Read Disclaimer cautions before attempting any experiment with higher intensity light on the eyes.

  • Groups need to be separated by eye color and sensitivity to light (hats, sunglasses, or sunlight receptive).

  • Notebook to take detailed notes including how light sensitive, eye color, occurrances, thoughts, etc.

  • Choose an external object with excellent light reflecting abilities.

  • Replace lamp light bulb with a 100W soft white bulb in order to increase the frequency of light and to easily explode apart vitamin A from the cone's opsins. Tilt lamp shade so light is aimed at object.

  • Practice ten minutes nightly exercise in a quiet undisturbed area. Missing one night will set you back two nights.

  • A positive afterimage (normal vision) utilizes normal saccade and optical nystagmus eye movements. Creating a vivid negative afterimage requires an absolute steady gaze on the external object using 100W light. In the beginning, a longer stare will be necessary until the eye muscles have adapted to the absolute steady gaze then the stare time can be decreased. Neuron adaptation to higher intensity light may take several days before the negative afterimage visions began to appear and will vary with each individual due to one's sensitivity to light and stare ability.

  • Close the eyes to observe the manifested negative afterimage behind closed eyelids.

  • Once the eye's neurons have adapted to the higher intensity light and created dominant, vivid negative afterimages, keep the eyes open and focus the eyes at a distant wall to observe the transparent negative afterimage on the distant wall.

  • Keep your eye's focus on the external object and you will see the positive afterimage with normal colors. Change your eye's focus to a distant wall and observe the negative afterimage. Or, close your eyes to see the negative afterimage behind closed eyelids.


Once the ability to see vivid negative afterimages is gained then experiment with:

  • Monocular (one-eyed) negative afterimages are always seen on the eyelid of the eye used to stare at the external object because energy is reflected back out the same eye due to the opposite closed eyelid.

  • Binocular negative afterimages creates a separate negative afterimage on each eyelid even though the mind gives the illusion of a single image.

  • Use many different objects and colors to experiment with.

  • Be aware of the prevailing theory that complementary colors are caused by cone cell fatigue. Do you ever see the primary colors in order for the cones to fatigue? If cone cells fatigue, why then doesn't the complementary colors fatigue?

  • Experiment and be aware that the retina always and first constructs the negative color signals of the external color wavelengths.

  • When observing vivid negative afterimages instead of using closed eyelids, use a light colored distant wall to view the transparent negative afterimage on the wall.

  • Vary the external object's distance from the eye and use a different wall distant from the eye to gain the understanding of how the visual system's micro signals become the macro signals of the external world.

  • Test over and over the results of when using the eyelid, wall, or external object as the backdrop. When is the positive or negative afterimage viewed?

  • Always be aware when the sensation of sight occurs - when the exiting negative energy strikes the eyelids, external object, or wall backdrop does the visual sensation appear to your awareness.

  • Experiment with different colors and notice if the negative afterimage colors are colors seen in the external world.

  • Experiment with seeing another's negative afterimage on the wall (be prepared to be laughed at if testing this outside of a naive group experiment). There are claims it can be done but hubby laughed at me.

  • With time and total adaptation to higher intensity light, create whole scene negative afterimages.

  • Use a parallel or cross-eyed focus with an absolute steady gaze to create a negative afterimage behind closed eyelids. Observe if the negative afterimage is solid or transparent.

  • Use a parallel focus on two identical candles but one is red and one is white using a divider so one eye cannot see the opposite candle. Use an absolute steady parallel focus gaze to create a negative afterimage. Observe what colored candle appears behind which eye.

  • Use a stopwatch to time the negative afterimage phases:

      1. How long is the steady gaze needed for neuron light adaptation to occur from beginning the experiments to full adaptation?

      2. How long after closing the eyes does it take for the negative afterimage to appear?

      3. Note the differences between viewing the solid negative afterimage behind closed eyelids and the transparent negative afterimage on the distant wall. Why?

      4. How long does it take for the negative afterimage multistage phases?

      5. Test the sequence of the multistage fragment appearances - shapes, circle, squares, triangles, colors, eyes, nose, mouth, etc.

      6. How long does it take for the negative afterimage to completely fade away?

      7. Time the recurrent images and their vividness then compare that information to the time length of the absolute steady gaze on the object.


Positive Afterimage Vision - Incoming Waves

A binocular positive afterimage vision uses normal eye movement and electromagnetic lower intensity light which keep the negative signals invisible. The incoming visual waves follow this process. The point of attention, the converged focus point of both eyes, falls along the visual axis to each eye's fovea. The non-fovea part, the peripheral area, of each eye receives signals from all directions. The image-carrying light waves reflect off the external object and pass through both corneas, with a refractive index of 1.376 bending and slowing the light wave as it passes from air into the eye's aqueous humor.

The aqueous humor has a refractive index of 1.336, which bends the waves even more and also changes the speed, slowing the waves to the pupil opening. The lens surface at the pupil refracts the waves still more, with the greatest slowing of waves through the lens mass. More refraction occurs at the posterior portion of the lens. Cornea and lens curvature refracts the image signals to an inverted, upside down, backward, nonpictorial micro signals on the retina. The aqueous humor, lens mass and vitreous humor reduce the speed of light, changing energy's wave-like characteristics to energy's particle-like characteristics as energy travels to the retina.

Energy then travels outside the non-permeable retinal cells (ganglion, bipolar, rods and cones) to the retina's rear to be absorbed by the permeable rod and cone membrane tips containing pigments. Developing the incoming altered energy signals (the film) begins with the chemical and electrical transformation as energy advances through the rods, cones and cross the synapses into the bipolar cells for more changes. The horizontal cells relay signals horizontally to other bipolar cells. Further chemical and electrical altering occurs after the impulses cross the synapses from bipolar cells into ganglion cells. Amacrine cells relay signals horizontally to other ganglion cells. Each ganglion cell has an axon, an unbranched prolongation extending from the cell body of a nerve cell. These axons gather on the inner surface of the retina and exit the eyes as the optic nerves.

The right eye's right visual field signals (red) are refracted to the left side of the right eye retina and then criss-cross at the optic chiasm. The signals next pass through the left thalamus and onto the lateral geniculate body and visual cortex centers V1, V2, V3, V4, and V5 in the left hemisphere. The left eye's right visual field signals (red) are refracted to the left side of the left eye retina. These signals also pass through the left thalamus, the lateral geniculate body, and the visual cortex centers V1, V2, V3, V4, and V5 in the left hemisphere.

The right eye's left visual field signals (green) are refracted to the right side of the right eye retina, and then proceed through the right thalamus, the lateral geniculate body, and the visual cortex centers V1, V2, V3, V4, and V5 in the right hemisphere. The left eye left visual field signals (green) are refracted to the right side of the left eye retina, and then criss-cross at the optic chiasm into the right thalamus, the lateral geniculate body, and visual centers V1, V2, V3, V4, and V5 in the right hemisphere.

Positive afterimage Vision - Outgoing Energy

Altered incoming energy at each hemisphere's visual cortex centers follow some commissural fibers, the white matter layers, from the left and right hemispheres' visual cortex layers II, III and IV which form the cable-like structure called the corpus callosum. The corpus callosum connects the incoming right visual field signals in the left hemisphere cortex (red) to neurons in the right hemisphere cortex on an outward path to exit the opposite eye. Similarly, the corpus callosum connects the incoming left visual field signals in the right hemisphere cortex (green) to neurons in the left hemisphere cortex on an outward path to exit the opposite eye.

After crossing the corpus callosum, the negative visual impulses follow the optic tract fibers converging into 8% of the optic nerve in route to the opposite visual cortices, lateral geniculate bodies, thalamus and the rear of the opposite retina. The energy's reverse refraction at the lens and corneas have inverted the upside down and backward signals back to the image signal's upright position.

The right visual field signals (red) now exit into the eyes' left visual field areas, and the left visual field signals (green) exit into the eyes' right visual field areas. The exiting negative energy creates an interference pattern with the positive energy at the original external object for the sensation of a positive afterimage - A HOLOGRAM.

The mind, located in the energy field, then receives the sensation of sight of a positive afterimage with the normal external object colors as we know the colors to be. The interference pattern at the external object then cause the energies to dissipate with a continuous flow of sight sensations. The positive afterimage in this case is the size of the object, since both object and image are at the same distance from the eyes.

The negative afterimage visual fragments and visual fields' multilayered sequences producing the background and foreground remain unobserved to human consciousness due to the up to 395 feet per second push from incoming waves.


Opposite positive afterimage vision, the complementary colored negative afterimage vision needs an absolutely steady gaze on the external object, which keep the visual signals stationary and unchanging along the visual path. Plus, observing negative afterimages require using a 100W light, which increases light's frequency and easily breaks apart the cones vitamin A and opsin. The stationary visual signals and increased light frequency puts the vivid, dominant, negative signals in the visible spectrum. The entire process of positive or negative afterimage vision follows the same complex visual path.

Negative energy exits the opposite corneas and strikes the closed eyelids creating an interference pattern at the eyelid backdrops for a small negative afterimage sensation to the mind. The negative afterimage size depends on the ratio of the object distant to image distant which in this case keeps the eyelid image sensation small. But changing the eye's focus point to a distant wall, a larger negative wall afterimage will be observed.

The multilayered visual fragments, form, and color sequences will be observed at the eyelid backdrop vivid negative afterimage. The slowing of energy impulses through the visual pathway now rely only on each cell's slower firing rate to push the impulses along its path allowing the negative afterimage to become visible. The generator-like push of open-eyed incoming energy pushes the impulses up to 395 feet per second, therefore the multilayered visual sequences remain invisible. Although each eyelid has a separate negative afterimage, the mind receives the sensation of a single negative afterimage (to be explained by the experts some day, I hope).

Eyelid and Wall Negative Afterimages


Is vision the same for all individuals?
Vision is similar, but not the same for all people. Vision is an individual experience. Some visual differences lie in physical eye defects, color blindness, sensitive or receptive to light, iris color, as well as individual realities affect one's visual perception. For example is a Grizzly a cuddly bundle of joy or a monster to be feared.

What is one's inner screen?
A person's inner screen is the blackness one sees when the eyelids are closed.

What is the difference between the positive and negative afterimage?
A positive afterimage in the colors we know the external object to be forms only when the backdrop used is the same external object. The negative afterimage forms only when the eyes are shifted away from the external object using a wall or eyelids as the backdrop.

What is a negative afterimage?
A negative afterimage although mainly undetected, can be the "first" sight sensation an individual experiences which is the retina's negative conversion of incoming electromagnetic energy (light). This first seeable sight sensation occurs at the eyelid backdrop as a negative in the complementary colors of the original external object.

Can anyone see negative afterimages?
Albinos will probably not be able to see negative afterimages due to their sensitiveness to high intensity light. Studies will be needed to determine if blue colored iris individuals have too little melanin which allows too much light to flood the retinas due to decreased light absorption in order to see a negative afterimage. Darker colored iris individuals should have no problem seeing vivid, dominant, controlled negative afterimages with a specific feedback process.

How knowable are negative afterimages?
The majority of people are unaware of negative afterimages until they are told of their existence. The persons aware of negative afterimages have probably detected merely fleeting glympses such as a bolt of lightening seen at night in which the original image lasts only afew seconds followed quickly by its negative afterimage. Other people may be see vague indistinct negative afterimages that quickly disappear. My research suggests the entire process to view vivid negative afterimages is unknown.

Why is ignorance of afterimages an advantage?
Afterimage unfamiliarity is an advantage because not knowing vigorously pushes forth the desire to know and understand the mysterious visual phenomena and opens the door for creativity. Otherwise, relenting to scientific knowledge would decrease the stamina to push forth into the unknown. "Not knowing" causes the creative imagination to use deductive reasoning and apply the missing links to form the whole explanation to explain vision.

When experimenting with creating negative afterimages, what type of external object is best to be practiced with?
An external object with excellent light reflecting abilities such as a glossy vinyl with a colorful design is best to experiment with in order to create vivid, dominant negative afterimages.

Is an absolute steady gaze at the external object necessary when creating negative afterimages?
An absolute steady gaze on the external object is necessary to create vivid negative afterimages for a steady flow of unchanging visual signals. Scanning the object causes the visual signals to shift locations on the visual system's path and occurs at a very rapid speed causing the negative afterimage to be unseen.

How does one create an absolute steady gaze?
Normal vision mainly consists of constant eye movement and/or blinking and to maintain an absolute steady gaze is merely a matter of practice, concentration, and feedback training the muscles to the eyes to remain stationary. Practice makes perfect.

Will doing a candle exercise in a lite or dark room make a difference when creating a negative candle flame afterimage?
The candle exercise practiced in a room with the light on blends the candle flame and room light and decreases the ability to see the flame negative afterimages. The candle flame in a dark room creates the color contrast and allows a person to better observe the flame negative afteimage.

Why is it necessary to use a 100W light to create a vivid negative afterimage?
100W light is necessary to create seeable dominant, vivid negative afterimages because stronger intensity light easily breaks away the vitamin A molecule from the cone's opsin. Plus, the magnitude of light striking the retina is increased and will not alter the amount and the speed of travel of an impulse. But the frequency of the impulses, measured in number of impulses per second, increases as the intensity of light is increased. Higher energized photons helps to create a dominant seeable negative afterimage.

How much practice will it take to see vivid negative afterimages?
Ten minutes nightly practice with an absolute steady gaze is necessary to give the visual neurons time to adapt in order to see negative afterimages. Gaining the ability to see negative afterimages will vary with each individual. Miss one night will set you back two nights.

If using a candle flame in a dark room, how long will it take before a negative flame afterimage manifests itself?
Time to report a "seeable" negative flame afterimage will vary with individuals according to their eye's sensitivity to light and the ability to maintain and absolutely steady gaze on the external object. When I began a concentration candle exercise, it took 22 days before the flame afterimage appeared which equaled a 60W light. But, it was not my purpose then to create negative afterimages. My purpose was to regain my concentration abilities. My determination to maintain my focus on the flame caused me to eventually maintain an absolutely steady gaze resulting in the flame's negative afterimage of multi-colors. But knowing your goal is to maintain an absolutely steady gaze to create negative afterimages and using a 100 W light bulb will take only a few days.

What does the flame's negative afterimage look like?
The flame's negative afterimage was a bright, multi-colored oval. The middle of the oval was black, surrounded with a thick circle of light green, then a narrow circle of reddish-orange and a third, smaller circle of yellow, all of which were surrounded by white light.

What creates the flame's negative afterimage colors?
Energy's wavelength creates the colors. But remember negative afterimages are the external color wavelengths in their complementary color or negative form.

How did the inner flame negative afterimage black center eventually become brilliant yellow?
After several nights of practice, the flame's negative afterimage middle black changed back and forth from white to yellow then finally stayed a brilliant yellow. The outer color rings always stayed the same. I speculate the color change was due to the neurons and cells final transformation or final adaptation to the specific wavelengths and the complementary colors for those wavelengths to its new state of balance. Studies will need to be done on this matter for the experts to analyze.

What created the outward movement of different colors in the candle flame and light bulb negative afterimage?
Color to our sight is caused by different wavelengths of light. In my opinion, the color flow in the flame/bulb afterimage was due to the changing wavelengths of light as the energy moved outward from the flame or bulb and created the effect of movement.

Can movement be observed when viewing negative afterimages?
My experience indicated a moving negative afterimage is never seen because the visual signals for movement occur so rapidly that it does not allow enough time for the negative signals to form in order to be observed. A minimum of five seconds was needed (after many hours of feedback had already occurred) with an absolute steady gaze at an external object before a vivid dominant negative afterimage would form. If there was eye movement or external object movement, no afterimage would form. But as energy radiated out away from the flame or lightbulb created the sensation of movement.

Why didn't the flame's flickering cause the flame negative afterimage not to form?
I believe the flickering flame had no affect when creating the negative afterimage because the normal flickering was so minute that it did not affect the original flame body. Studies need to be done for the expert's opinion.

Why did only the candle flame negative afterimage form in the beginning and not the entire candle image?
Only the flame negative afterimage formed in the beginning due to the lower 60-70 watt light used. Once the eyes have adapted to 100W light, then the negative afterimage of the flame, candle and suroundings will form as a whole.

Can strong "concentrated thought" burn out a 60-70W light bulb?
Due to my visualization/concentration experience with the exploding burned out light bulb, I have to answer a resounding YES, which is probably similar to how singing a high pitch will break glass. After an hour of concentrated visualization exercises, my 60 or 70W light bulb exploded. I replaced it unknowning with the only bulb I had - a 100W Soft white light bulb. Studies need to be done on degrees of concentration and its effects on light bulbs.

What light intensity is needed to create vivid, dominant, controlled negative afterimages?
A 60 or 70 W light is not strong enough but a 100 W soft white lightbulb creates the process of the neurons self-transormation needed to create vivid negative afterimage. Plus, from the onset of using a 100 W light nightly, it took one week for the visual pathway to adapt to the higher intensity light before the negative afterimage began to appear.

Why did it take one week for the visual neurons and cells to react to the higher 100 W light before the image began to appear?
Cell shock from an absolute steady gaze nightly on a 100W light while the transformation into a different state of balance occurred, I imagine. One student began seeing a green color spot after only three nights of practice from a red candle. It is not my purpose to explain what occurrs within the neurons. It will be interesting to hear the expert's opinions after experimentation studies.

When using the flower vase oil painting for visualization, why did the solid yellow square form?
I speculate that the 100W light which created higher frequency waves triggered a huge outpouring of coherence in all photons within the frame's square and left this new configuration (yellow square) quivering in a coherent vibrational state of crisis and transition until the cells (possibly the horziontal and amacrine cells) new state of balance settled and became acquired. An increase in area copies the affects of an increase in intensity.

What changes occurred with the oil painting negative afterimage?
The oil painting negative afterimage nightly experiments brought about gradual changes within the solid yellow square. First the dark wood frame created the brilliant yellow square and the frame's white border brought forth the inner black border behind closed eyelids. A blurred image was the vase of flowers which never would clearly form.

Are the negative colors like the colors we see in the external world?
The complementary colors are more fluorescent and pearlescent than external world colors.

Why didn't the other students in my class doing the same exercises ever see the flame or object's negative afterimages?
Upon interviewing each individual as my knowledge expanded, I found that they:

  • had the room light on vs a dark room for the contrast helpful in the beginning,

  • had a 60-70W light bulb vs a 100W

  • and never practiced the exercises with a fixed gaze

What was the next phase in creating negative afterimages?
Continued nightly practice and experimentation using a colorful footstool mouse image, brought forth a "seeable" eight foot negative afterimage when a distance wall was used as the backdrop with open eyes. The image was transparent and every item on the wall could be seen through the mouse image in their normal external colors.

Can the negative afterimage size be varied?
Yes, the wall or eyelid negative afterimage size can be altered by changing the ratio of the object distance to image distance.

Can other individuals see the negative afterimage on the wall?
Vision is an individual sensation. I had asked my husband to tell me what he saw as I went through the steps to create the wall negative afterimage. He saw NOTHING and rolled over with laughter. I speculate that he was not sensitive to the interference pattern created by my visual signals. There are reports of some individuals acutely sensitive to another person's external negative afterimage who have reported seeing that person's precise image. More experiments need to be done with this.

Why is the wall negative afterimage so large?
The ratio of the object distance to image distance creates the size. The wall image increases in size as the wall backdrop gets further away. This is because the visual energy signals began to spread outward as they exit the eyes increasing the micro image signals to its macro image size.

Why is the negative afterimage observed on the wall backdrop transparent?
The wall negative afterimage is transparent because as the visual energy exits the eye, the energy begans spreading outward and the signals become thinner as they spread to the greater distance taking away the appearance of solidity.

Why was the 8 foot wall image viewed as a negative afterimage and the wall objects viewed as a positive afterimage?
The wall backdrop image portion was in its negative form because the interference pattern was between the wall and the exiting visual negative signals, thus a negative afterimage. But the wall objects interference pattern was between the original external wall object and its exiting visual negative signals, thus a positive afterimage.

What was the next negative afterimage phase to occur?
The next negative afterimage occurrance that became noticable was the multistage integration of visual fragments. For example, the outer white bead of the footstool formed in the complementary black, then came the reddish-orange circle in bluegreen. Then in succession formed the ears, head, eyes, then nose, and last the mouth. This clearly proves that vision is a multistage integration of visual signals.

Were the multistage integration of visual signal noticeable on both the negative wall image and behind closed eyelids?
The multistage integration of visual signals were apparent only when observing the negative afterimage behind closed eyelids and could not be detected within the wall image.

Why is the multistage integration of visual signals detected in one view and not the other?
The multistage integration of visual signals go unobserved in the wall negative afterimage due to the eyes being open. Open-eyes provide continuous electromagnetic waves entering the eyes pushing the nerve impulses 3 1/4 to 395 feet per second through the visual pathway. The movement is so fast that the multistage integration of visual signals remain unobservable to the conscious mind. But when the eyes are closed nerve cells rely only on their own electro-chemical changes and electrical impulse firing to supply the energy for the transmission of the nerve impulses. Energy's journey through the aqueous humor, lens, and vitreous humor first greatly slow the incoming waves which are further slowed from the slower cell's nerve impulses transmission, thus allowing the multistage intregration of visual signals to be observed.

Did any more negative afterimage phases occur?
A final and interesting negative afterimage phase occurred on the 17th night of practice and experimentation using the 100W light bulb. Negative afterimage observation began to include not only the bulb but also the shade, lamp, and curtains, or the external object and items surrounding the object. Simultaneously began the leap to "whole scene" complementary images without the need for the 100W light shining on objects. An early morning scene with normal vision was a small black dog sitting on top of the beige couch in front of the black framed window. The outside scene included the snow-covered ground, dark brown four-car garage with its white doors and snow-covered roof. Whole scene complementary colored inner images could now be created from the light of dawn. Ever see black snow!

Why after four months of no nightly visual experiments was the ability to see negative afterimages gone?
The nightly visual experiments caused the visual system to undergo a process of self-transformation which resulted in a new state of balance resulting in the ability to see vivid negative afterimages. But when the nightly experiments ceased, the visual system gradually returned to its normal state of balance.

Will five seconds to began forming the negative afterimage after closing the eyes be constant with all people?
In my opinion, the five seconds to began forming the negative afterimage will vary for everyone according to the individual's receptiveness to high intensity light, if an absolute steady gaze was maintained, and when enough visual feedback was given.

Why does it take a negative afterimage fifteen seconds to fade away?
The negative afterimage fades away after fifteen seconds because it takes 15 seconds for the visual incoming energy to travel the visual path after closing the eyes to dissipate with the interference pattern created when the negative visual energy flow strikes the eyelid backdrop.

What causes the positive or negative afterimage to manifest itself?
Afterimages appear when the interference patterns occur with exiting negative energy striking a backdrop.

Exactly what is a positive and negative afterimage?
Positive and negative afterimages are simply HOLOGRAMS - a sensation detected by the mind.

Since the visual field paths or fragment areas never merge, how does the multistate integration of visual signals occur?
The first clue for vision's multistage integration of visual signals show up when observing negative afterimages and the multistage integration of the negative signals. The major clue will appear when doing cross-eyed vision experiments. The final resting place all visual signals merge is as electrical impulses exit the two eyes meeting at the backdrop where the interference pattern creates the sensation of sight. The multistage integration of all visual signals and fragments occurs by the alternating right then left eye impulses exiting the eyes.

But, what determines the visual layering "sequences" of visual signals and fragments?
My speculation worthy of consideration is the change of the wave-like to particle-like characteristics of energy. The medium energy travels in changes light's velocity, therefore the wavelength. The refractive index, and the aqueous and vitreous humors, and lens mass also reduces light's speed and therefore wavelength. Energy's incoming wavelengths have encoded signals for color, size, shape, visual fragments for the ears, nose, mouth, etc. etc. Logic suggests that the incoming wavelengths all vary the wavelength changes due to the curvature of cornea, lens, and entry into the different mediums. Plus the refractive index and humors will vary the wavelengths speeds. Therefore, it is energy's wavelength that determines the impulse sequences for the visual signals and fragments.

What clues do negative afterimages provide regarding the functions of the eye-brain mechanisms?

  • One clue is that the eye-brain mechanism "develops" the complementary colored negative from the incoming different wavelengths for the external colors.

  • Second clue shows that a neurological "stop" is placed at the corpus callosum due to the absence of incoming energy from a closed eye.

  • Third clue shows that the visual process involves a synergistic multistage organization. The multistage sequence with normal vision happens rapidly resulting in the illusion of a unified whole image.

  • The fourth clue shows that the eye-brain mechanisms "do not" do the seeing because 1) visual signals are refracted upside down and backward at the cornea and lens and remain that way on the journey though the brain to be reverse refracted at the cornea and lens as they exit the opposite eye. The first sight sensation occurs at the eyelid backdrop outside the eye/brain in the upright positions. 2) The eye's microsignals become the macrosignals of the external world as negative energy exits the cornea on an outward path enlarging to the backdrop according to the ratio of the object plane distance to the image plane distance.

What seems to be unknown about negative afterimages?
Apparent unknown afterimage information includes:
  • No negative afterimage information has stated that creating negative afterimages is mastered by the "100W light intensity" needed to see controlled, vivid, negative afterimages.

  • The fact appears unknown that once the eyes are sensitized to brighter light, an individual can create vivid negative afterimages of everything including whole scene negative afterimage from the light of dawn without the light/dark contrast.

  • The fact that afterimage transformations occur in phases as neurons adapt to higher intensity light appears to be unknown.

  • Wavelength determines whether the particle or wave-like characteristics dominate. Light's velocity, and therefore the wavelength, is changed by the medium it travels through and the refractive index of the aqueous humor, vitreous humor and lens mass changing the incoming energy to the particle-like characteristics.

  • Speculation that the incoming and outgoing particle-like characteristics using the same path has not been considered. Even though the incoming and outgoing signals both have the same particle like characteistics they are not the same - one path is the left angled views and the other is the right angled views - therefore, never affecting each other.

  • Vision is a multistage integration of visual signal appears to be suspected but remains an unknown scientific fact. Observation of the greatly slowed visual negative energy when observing negative afterimages will make this a known scientific fact.

  • What changes the positive incoming visual energy to its negative form is unexplained. It is known that color sensations rely on cone pigments with varying molecular structure equipped to absorb specific wavelengths of light and reflect all others. Color vision strives for balance. Neuroscience will have to analyze in depth the affect of the cone's, for example, red-sensitive pigment erythrolade absorbing short wavelengths for red. Some references call it bleaching or cone fatigue. My speculation is that incoming energy's positive short wavelengths for red are absorbed by the erythrolade pigment which then shows the opposite, yet complementary, tendency to transcent itself and generate new forms of organization - thus, negative energy.

  • Science does not state that vision is indeed HOLOGRAMS and that the negative or positive afterimages depend on the backdrop used - eyelids, distant wall, or the original external object (or the crossing of the visual axis to be discussed later).

Next: Microscopic Vision

© Copyright Mary J. Johnston

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Mary J. Johnston